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Chapter 11: Verses 258-262

The teachings on Chapter 11 of Aryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way refute truly existent functional phenomena by refuting truly existent time.

  • Refuting the view of a substantially existent future
  • The absurd consequences that would result from a substantially existent future
  • If the future exists in a substantial way there would be no reason to restrain from non-virtuous actions

64 Aryadeva’s 400 Stanzas: Verses 258-262 (download)

Venerable Thubten Chodron

Venerable Chodron emphasizes the practical application of Buddha’s teachings in our daily lives and is especially skilled at explaining them in ways easily understood and practiced by Westerners. She is well known for her warm, humorous, and lucid teachings. She was ordained as a Buddhist nun in 1977 by Kyabje Ling Rinpoche in Dharamsala, India, and in 1986 she received bhikshuni (full) ordination in Taiwan. Read her full bio.