The teachings on Chapter 11 of Aryadeva’s Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way refute truly existent functional phenomena by refuting truly existent time.
- Background on the Buddhist view of time to set the stage for Chapter 11
- The Madhyamaka view of future, present, and past
- How the three times are functional phenomena
- What it means for phenomena to arise, abide, and cease
61 Aryadeva’s 400 Stanzas: Introduction, Part 1 (download)