The purpose of a refuge group is to prepare the participants for formally taking refuge in the Three Jewels and taking any or all of the five lay precepts. Studying and discussing these topics together helps us understand them correctly and deepens our present understanding. It also gives us a forum for discussing our hesitations, doubts, and questions, and to share our insights and understandings with others. In this way, we give support to and receive support from Dharma friends as we practice the path together. Some refuge groups have found the meetings so helpful that they continue to meet from time to time after the refuge ceremony to “check in” and see how everyone is doing.
Please read and discuss in the following order:
- The text of the refuge ceremony (by Venerable Thubten Chodron)
- “Taking Refuge” from Open Heart, Clear Mind (by Venerable Thubten Chodron)
- Refuge (by Lama Thubten Yeshe)
- “Practical Guidelines for Good Living” from Taming the Mind (by Venerable Thubten Chodron)
- Life Without Sila is Like a Car Without Brakes by Bhikkhu Ajahn Amaro
- The Healing Power of the Precepts: Building self-esteem the Buddhist way by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
- Guidelines for the Practice of Refuge from Pearl of Wisdom, Book 1
The group meets together as often and as many times as it likes until the people in it have completed studying and discussing the readings, and until they feel prepared to take refuge and precepts. At the beginning of each meeting, one person should lead a brief meditation and then initiate the discussion, either sharing some of his or her ideas, or posing some questions for everyone to think about. People should talk personally and honestly and share their reflections and experiences—that’s how to develop Dharma friendships and how to give and receive help with doubts. Please write down any unresolved points and give them to me. I’ll meet with the group prior to the ceremony and answer them.
As you will see from the readings, there are various interpretations of refuge and precepts. This is to get us to think more deeply and to help us become more aware of our actions. We must distinguish breaking a precept from the root from committing a minor transgression, and these also differ from expanding the meaning of the precept to things not specifically mentioned in it.
For example, to break the precept of avoiding killing from the root, one must kill a human being with all the parts of the action intact (i.e. one has identified the person to kill, has the intention to kill, kills the person, the other person dies before oneself, and one rejoices at having killed). This is different from putting an animal to sleep, which is a minor transgression of the precept, not a complete one. Such an action still should be abandoned, but it is not as severe if it is done. The precept to avoid stealing is broken from the root if one steals something of enough value that the legal system in the country would hold one accountable for stealing. The precept to avoid unwise sexual contact is broken from the root if one has a relationship outside one’s committed relationship, or even if one is single and the other person is in a committed relationship. The precept to avoid lying is broken from the root by claiming to have spiritual attainments that one knows one does not have. Since the precept against intoxicants does not involve a naturally negative action (i.e. an action which by its nature is negative), there is not the division into breaking it from the root and committing a minor transgression.
The boundaries of some precepts may vary according to the preceptor giving them. For example, I give the intoxicant precept in a very clear way: no alcohol, recreational drugs or tobacco, not even a very tiny amount!
The meaning of each precept can be expanded from what is written, and this is helpful for increasing our awareness. However, when we take a precept, we are committing ourselves to following it only as it is written. For example, if we expand the meaning of abandoning intoxicants, it could refer to stopping any intoxicating activity, i.e. anything we do to distract or “intoxicate” ourselves, for example, space out by watching TV, going shopping when we are bored, and so on. Certainly, it would be to our advantage to abandon all activities done with a motivation seeking distraction, however, it is not required that we do this when we take the intoxicant precept. The precept itself refers to abandoning only alcohol, recreational drugs and tobacco (that’s already a lot!).
Each person may take any or all of the five precepts at the time of taking refuge. Each person should let me know which precepts he or she wishes to take.